Rail Projects

Project Title Client Industry Date Duration Project Summary

Safety Case Scoping Study for the Jubilee Line Extension

London Underground Limited

Transport (Rail)

1993

3 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited was responsible for scoping out the complete requirements for a railway Safety Case. The scoping study included both the technical requirements and the strategic options available to the management team to complete the safety case and maintain "ownership", a key HSE requirement. In addition to the production of the safety case itself, PM Safety Consultants Limited personnel also gave advice on aspects of living PRA, and the concept of a rolling programme for the safety case. Presentations on these topics were given to senior management and at project director level, so that the London Underground Jubilee Line extension team could formulate their safety strategy. The advice PM Safety Consultants Limited gave was to build up an in-house team with a significant amount of work done within London Underground Limited. In addition, the use of consultants for some specialist areas was recommended.

Hazards Review / QRA Model & Database for the Jubilee Line Extension

London Underground Limited

Transport (Rail)

1993

4 months

Working directly for London Underground Limited, a major railway operator, PM Safety Consultants Limited personnel assisted in the production of the detailed technical specification for the Hazards Review package to support the eventual production of the Safety Case for the proposed new railway line. The production of the specification required a knowledge of the existing studies performed, together with an understanding of the methodology to be employed. The intention was to use the technical scope of work in a competitive tender. This project was undertaken in one month.

PM Safety Consultants Limited were also involved in setting up the initial Quantified Risk Assessment model for a major railway undertaking, and producing a database of fault data. The database was set up on Alpha IV using fault data for the existing and operational section of the railway, as well as other relevant fault models. The database provided the information necessary for the Fault Tree Analyses (FTA) using TGR software. Consequence analyses were performed by means of Event Tree Analyses using ETA software. A comparison was made between these findings and the results obtained from an earlier risk model for the existing line, and any weaknesses were highlighted. The new risk model and database formed the basis for the proposed hazards review, where both sections of line would become interfaced.

Railway Safety Case

Union Railways Limited

Transport (Rail)

1993

3 months

Working directly for Union Railways Limited (a division of British Rail), PM Safety Consultants Limited assisted in the development of the bid evaluation procedures for the railway safety case and peer review contracts. In addition to the preparation of the evaluation procedures, PMSC personnel provided an interim peer review function pending the appointment of the peer review safety consultant. Topics covered as part of the interim peer review were as follows:

  • Initiating fault schedules
  • Safety case content and format
  • Probabilistic criteria
  • Single versus dual track tunnels
  • Fault schedule hazard log
  • Corporate evacuation policy and strategy.

Post Project Note

Union Railways Limited became the client company for the Channel Tunnel Rail Link, responsible for the day-to-day development of the project under the direction of Rail Link Engineering Limited.

Safety Analysis Report

Railtrack Major Projects Division

Transport (Rail)

1994

9 months

Working directly for Railtrack Major Projects Division South Zone, PM Safety Consultants Limited was responsible for co-ordinating the production of the Safety Analysis Report on clearances for the passage of both the new passenger-carrying rolling stock (Class 373/1 - Eurostar) and freight vehicles over the existing infrastructure between the Channel Tunnel and London. The study included the management of a civil engineering sub-contractor (CEDAC, Croydon) providing support to the analysis. PMSC personnel prepared scopes of work for the sub-contractor and then managed the programme of work throughout the project. The analysis was undertaken using the latest calculations for the derived Kinematic Envelope for the Class 373 train vehicles, and covered all major structures adjacent to the railway routes, i.e. tunnels, station platforms, under-bridges, over-bridges, footbridges and other miscellaneous structures such as viaducts and gas pipes. In total some 700 structures were reviewed, covering Channel Tunnel routes 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Hazards Operability Study for Ballast Gluing - Channel Tunnel Routes

Railtrack Major Projects Division

Transport (Rail)

1994

3 weeks

Working directly for Railtrack Major Projects Division South Zone, PM Safety Consultants Limited was responsible for organising a HAZOP study on the topic of ballast gluing for the provision of lateral restraint. Ballast gluing was used extensively on the South Zone Channel Tunnel routes, and as such a HAZOP was organised and implemented to identify any major hazards posed by the process. The role of PMSC personnel was initially to prepare the HAZOP brief and send it to the attendees for comment and review, and then to perform the role of HAZOP secretary at the meeting itself, and prepare the minutes of the meeting together with the detailed HAZOP action sheets. Finally, once all the HAZOP action sheets were closed out, a full report on the HAZOP was prepared for submission to the appropriate SAP in support of the overall safety case for clearances.

Risk Analysis of LTF 25 Wheel Set

Blue Print Engineering Services for Powell Duffryn

Transport (Rail)

1995

6 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited was responsible for providing advice on how to conduct a risk analysis on the Low Track Force (LTF) 25 on behalf of Powell Duffryn, the bogie wheel set designers. The owner of the wheel sets was ARC operated via Mendip Rail, mounted on hopper vehicles used to carry aggregate. The approach was to hold a HAZOP session using keywords and deviation agreed prior to the HAZOP in the briefing note which was sent to all participants. The HAZOP identified several guidewords which represented major component items in the wheel set, including:

  • Wheel seat
  • Bearing seat Axle
  • Bearing inner ring, cage and outer ring
  • Axlebox
  • Wheel set re-assembly
  • External factors
  • Management of the fleet

At each stage the deviations were applied to the guidewords, the potential hazards discussed and any protection available to mitigate the hazard identified. Each scenario was then ranked via the risk matrix in terms of overall risk. The process was fully documented in a report which was submitted to the vehicle acceptance body The Engineering Link.

QRA of LTF 25 Wheel Set

Blue Print Engineering Services for Powell Duffryn

Transport (Rail)

1995

3 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited was asked to provide a Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA) for the LTF 25 wheel set. The vehicle acceptance body, The Engineering Link, mandated that the QRA would be required in order to facilitate consideration of allowing the LTF 25 wheel set back into service. The QRA was conducted based on the hazardous sequences identified by the earlier HAZOP. The QRA also included a human reliability assessment using the Human Error And Reduction Technique (HEART) applied to the wheel set inspection regime. The QRA was documented, and after comments was accepted by the Vehicle Acceptance Authority. The wheel sets were allowed back into service.

Heathrow Express EMU Document Review

Interfleet Technology, Derby UK

Transport (Rail)

1995

2 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited was requested to act in the role of an independent assessor and carry out a review of the Reliability, Safety and Maintainability Plan, and also a Failure Mode, Effect and Criticality Analysis documents prepared by Siemens, relating to the new trains for the Heathrow Express. This review was conducted on behalf of Interfleet Technology, Derby who were acting as the procurement agent for the British Airports Authority.

Failure Modes, Effects & Criticality Analysis of Signalling - Jubilee Line Extension

Westinghouse Signals Limited

Transport (Rail)

1996

3 months

Working for Westinghouse Signals, PM Safety Consultants Limited were responsible for the preparation of the Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) for the Speed and Location Module, which was part of the moving block signalling system to be installed on the London Underground Limited Jubilee Line extension. This work required a detailed understanding of digital electronics and the system operation. The FMECA was undertaken at pin level, i.e. stuck HIGH and stuck LOW. Wherever possible, the built-in test equipment BITE was identified as a means to reveal faults. The FMECA was conducted over three months, and involved extensive consultations with the designers of the module.

Post Project Note

In 1998 a decision was taken not to implement a moving block signalling system, and a fixed block system was installed instead.

Clearance

Allot & Lomax

Rail

1995

6 Months

Working as an advisor to Allot & Lomax, PM Safety Consultants worked on the safety aspects of the EPS / Networker Project on the ECML.

Various small safety and reliability projects for Interfleet Ltd

Interfleet

Transport (Rail)

Jul-95

3 Months

1)Production of task safety plans and associated guidance for the Interfleet engineers that includes:

Risk Assessment

Hazard Sheets

Risk Assignment

Risk Identification

Risk Management

2)Reliability Apportionment exercise for the class 91 drive link vibration detection system (18 man hours)

3)HST Halon Replacement Project

Hazards Operability Study Guidance Documents

Railtrack Major Projects Division, North West Zone

Transport (Rail)

1995

2 weeks

Working directly for Railtrack Major Projects Division North West Zone, PM Safety Consultants Limited was responsible for the production of a HAZOP guidance report. The guidance report presented the basis of the technique, and the application of keywords and deviations to the processes being considered by the HAZOP. In addition, the document included guidance on how to organise and report the HAZOP by the production of briefing notes prior to the meeting, minutes and actions after the meeting, and the final HAZOP report once the actions were closed out. Schematics were also used to facilitate understanding of the process by non-safety specialists.

European Passenger Services Operations North of London

Railtrack Major Projects Division, North West Zone

Transport (Rail)

1996

6 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited personnel acted in the Planning Supervisor role for the EPS North of London project. In addition, under the CDM regulations, PMSC personnel developed the required project Safety Cases for each of the routes being used by EPS rolling stock (Class 373/2) in the North West. The route considered were as follows:

  • The primary route into Manchester Piccadilly via the Styal line.
  • The core route into Manchester Piccadilly via Stockport Station.
  • The diversionary route via Macclesfield.
  • The route north of Manchester to the West Coast Main Line.
  • Parts of the West Coast Main Line.

In addition to the safety case work, PM Safety Consultants Limited personnel were involved in the hazards identification studies for the Overhead Line Equipment, Signalling and P/Way works. The work itself was mainly a conversion from a dual track circuited system with impedance boxes to a return conductor system using one rail for traction current and one rail for the signalling track circuits. This approach was aimed at reducing the instance of wrong side failures and other telecoms interference. Other specific hazards reviews were organised and reported for the proposed station works at Piccadilly Station, and the reconstruction of a bridge in the Sandbach area (Bridge 14).

Southern Track Renewals

STRC

Rail

Jan-96

2 Months

General Safety Advice on Railway Maintenance infrastructure projects

Simplified Approach to the Development of Railtrack MPD Project Safety Cases

Railtrack MPD East Anglia

Transport (Rail)

1996

2 months

Working directly for Railtrack MPD East Anglia, PM Safety Consultants Limited prepared a report on a simplified approach to the development of a project Safety Case and the supporting risk assessment process. An insight into the work was gained whilst working on the EPS beyond London infrastructure change project Safety Case and Risk Assessment. The approach of simplifying the process for small repeatable infrastructure change projects was aimed at reducing costs and standardising the approach to risk assessment by a consideration of generic risks wherever possible. During the development of the report, extensive discussions were held with Railtrack MPD East Anglia safety personnel in order to agree the eventual simplified process.

Risk Assessment for the Stafford Cross-Over

Owen Williams Railways for Railtrack Midlands Zone

Transport (Rail)

1997

1 month

Working as a sub-contractor to Owen Williams Railways, PM Safety Consultants Limited organised and conducted a project risk assessment for the proposed implementation of the Stafford Cross-Over. This work involved the procurement of software to provide the planning tools, and the use of the Monte Carlo simulation. The first step was the development of a detailed plan for each of the proposed five possessions. The plan was then subjected to a detailed review to investigate the possible impacts of over-runs on each of the individual tasks. This information was then put into the Monte Carlo simulation software, and a profile for the likelihood of successfully completing each possession was produced. The output from the analysis was fed back into the strategy for the possession planning in order to have a high confidence that the work to be undertaken could actually be completed within the planned possessions, ie. to minimise the risk of possession over-run and thus avoid penalty costs which are inevitably incurred when possessions over-run.

Safety Case for ECML Infrastructure Change to Enable Class 373/2 & Class 365/5

Railtrack Major Projects Division London North East & East Anglia

Transport (Rail)

1996/1997

8 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited prepared the first draft and subsequent updates of the project safety case for the infrastructure change to enable the running of Class 373/2 Regional Eurostar and Class 365/5 Networker on the East Coast Main Line and the route up to King's Lynn. The scope of the infrastructure change was varied and covered the following works:

  • Permanent Way / Civils
  • Re-siting of minor lineside features
  • OHLE works, including re-registration
  • Telecommunication works
  • Signalling works

PM Safety Consultants Limited also facilitated the risk assessment process with the various design teams on the project. A risk assessment report was prepared, and a hazards log or register was developed. The methods adopted for this study were those specified in the Railtrack MPD Divisional Manual, Volume 10. A key aspect of this part of the work was to demonstrate by a systematic approach that risks had been controlled to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). The safety case and the supporting risk assessment report were submitted to the Railtrack zonal Safety Review Groups, and comments addressed accordingly. Both documents were accepted by the London North East and East Anglia zonal Safety Review Groups. PM Safety Consultants Limited personnel also complied the CDM Health & Safety file, acting on behalf of MPD as the Planning Supervisor.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel Safety Support to Heathrow Express Project Team

Siemens Transportation, Germany

Transport (Rail)

1997

12 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited seconded two personnel to Siemens Transportation in Erlangen, Germany, to assist with the Safety Assurance for the Heathrow Express project. The work involved various safety analysis tasks on a variety of train systems.

Secondment of a Safety Engineer to WCML RM - Safety Manager, Re-Signalling

Railtrack WCML Route Modernisation

Transport (Rail)

1996

12 months

Working directly for Railtrack WCML Route Modernisation, PM Safety Consultants Limited seconded a specialist safety consultant to act as Safety Manager, Re-Signalling. The remit was to co-ordinate the approach to risk management on the re-signalling aspects of the route modernisation, which included Train Control Systems.

Secondment of a Safety Engineer to WCML RM - Safety Risk Manager

Railtrack WCML Route Modernisation

Transport (Rail)

1996

12 months

Working directly for Railtrack WCML Route Modernisation, PM Safety Consultants Limited seconded a specialist safety consultant to act as Safety Risk Manager. The remit was to co-ordinate the approach to risk management across the project as a whole, and to manage the production and use of the safety risk register or hazards log. The position was based at Stanier House in Birmingham, and the engineer reported to both the Director of Safety and the Project Director.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel - RAM Co-ordinator

Railtrack Thameslink 2000

Transport (Rail)

1998/1999

4 months

PMSC Limited placed an engineer on attachment at Railtrack Thameslink offices. Initially the remit was to provide RAM advice within the project team, and to write the scope of work for the RAM modelling for the infrastructure improvement plan. The contractor eventually selected was Jardine, using their TRAIL model.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel - Regional NE Railways / Northern Spirit Project

Siemens Transportation, Erlangen, Germany

Transport (Rail)

1999/2000

20 months

Support on Northern Spirit EMU train unit and other projects as required:

  • Review/rework FMECAs & Fault Trees for Class 333.
  • Review and rework of base event data.
  • General support in the safety and reliability analysis process for NS.
  • Support production of EMU train unit technical description.
  • Review of Train Structure Tree (EMU system breakdown).
  • Production of Reliability and Safety Programme Plans.
  • Preparation of Reliability Critical Items List and Technical Causalty Criteria documentation.
  • Review targets & results from the Safety Targets Application Process.
  • General support in the safety and reliability analysis process for NS project.
  • Production of Hazard Tree / Accident Group Tree.
  • Organisation of Hazard Identification Meetings and Minutes.
  • Definition and general support of the Hazard Identification, Management & Close-out process.
  • Production of the complete project Hazard Matrix and Hazard Log.
  • Production and support of Safety Case documentation.
  • Preparation and support of Safety Case Submissions to independent assessor/auditor/Railtrack.
  • Support response to independent assessor/Railtrack comments.

Systems Assurance for C751B EMU

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Nippon Sharyo Joint Venture

Transport (Rail)

1998/1999

15 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited was appointed by the KNS Joint Venture to undertake the Systems Assurance activities for a new-build 6 car EMU for the Singapore MRT. The scope of this project included the following activities:

  • Development of the Safety Assurance Program Plan.
  • Development of RAM Assurance Program Plans.
  • Detailed PHA and HAZOP studies for each train system.
  • Quantified Risk Assessment.
  • Safety Critical Items List.
  • FMECAs.
  • Reliability and Maintainability predictions.
  • Safety Assurance Summary Report.
  • RAM Demonstration Test Plan & Procedure

All the activities were documented and submitted to the Singapore Land Transit Authority for their acceptance.

Support to the KIT Consortium for C830 Marina Line Bid

Kawasaki Itochu Toshiba Consortium

Transport (Rail)

1999/2000

9 months

The KIT Consortium appointed PM Safety Consultants Limited as the member responsible for Systems Assurance for the C830 Marina Line project bid (a new underground railway system in Singapore). PM Safety Consultants Limited provided the following input to the bid documentation:

  • Initial Systems Assurance Program Plans
  • Detailed review of the Singapore land Transport Authority (LTA) Systems Assurance requirements and targets
  • Development of an overview system-wide Preliminary Hazards Analysis
  • Development of an overview Operational Philosophy and Preliminary Fault Analysis for a driver-less, fully automated railway.

Systems Assurance for C751B EMU - R & M

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Nippon Sharyo Joint Venture

Transport (Rail)

1998/1999

15 months

The scope of the PMSC remit for C751B was extended to include all reliability and maintainability activities in addition to safety related activities.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel - Safety Audit for New Light Railway, Kuala Lumpur

Bombardier Transportation Systems Limited (Kuala Lumpur)

Transport (Rail)

1999

3 months

PM Safety Consultants Limited attached a safety engineer to Bombardier to provide operational safety support services and assist the Commissioning Manager in certifying the safety of a new light railway system in Kuala Lumpur. The role was to provide a safety audit function on site to ensure that all the appropriate safety measures were installed correctly and fully integrated into the operational railway.

Clearances Risk Assessment, West Coast Main Line Rugby - Brinklow Section

Scott Wilson Railways Limited for Railtrack

Transport (Rail)

1999

1 month

PM Safety Consultants Limited was sub-contracted by Scott Wilson Railways to prepare a clearances risk assessment for the Rugby to Brinklow section of the West Coast Main Line. The assessment reviewed the clearances at each major structure adjacent to the route, including the following:

  • Under - bridges
  • Over - bridges
  • Foot bridges
  • Viaducts

The risk assessment was conducted using the guidance provided in the Railtrack Yellow Book. The final Clearances Risk Assessment report was accepted by Railtrack.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel

Bombardier Transportation Systems Limited (Canada)

Transport (Rail)

2000

3 months

PMSC Limited seconded a safety engineer to the Safety department of Bombardier Transportation Systems Limited in Kingston, Ontario. During this attachment period the consultant was involved with several rail projects currently being managed by Bombardier, principally the Vancouver Sky Train. This contract was part of the periodic support provided by PMSC to Bombardier.

SP 1900

Itochu, Kinki Sharyo, Kawasaki (IKK) Consortium

Transport (Rail)

2000

1 year

PMSC Limited assisted IKK in the preparation of key safety submissions for the SP 1900 EMUs for East Rail and West Rail. The remit was an initial review of the miscellaneous electrical systems using the HAZOP technique, followed by a detailed QRA for each route (using KCRC-approved methodology). The culmination of the work was the production of the Design Stage Operational Safety Reports (OSRs) for East Rail and West Rail SP 1900 rolling stock.

Taiwan High Speed Rail Project

Taiwan Shinkansen Corporation (TSC)

Transport (Rail)

Dec-00

6 years

PMSC Limited has been appointed as the RAMS advisors for the consortium providing the core systems for the new high speed railway project between Taipei and Kaohsiung throughout the preliminary design phase. Further details are confidential.

Hazard Review for Train Catering System

INBIS Technology, Derby, UK

Transport (Rail)

2001

2 months

INBIS are the supplier of the Kitchen and Galley for an Alstom train being supplied to Great Western in the UK.

PM Safety Consultants were requested to assist with the formal closure of 130 hazards identified as a result of the Kitchen and Galley.

The activities conducted were as follows:-

  • Initial review of documentation
  • Visit to Train at the Washwood Heath site
  • Meeting with Alstom to discuss the strategy to be taken
  • Hazards Review meeting to review the hazards
  • Preparation of the Hazards Log
  • Identification of all preventative and/or mitigation measures provided by the design
  • Closure of each of the 130 Alstom Safety Feature Action Sheets
  • Preparation of report to document the process.

The work was formally submitted to Alstom in the form of a master file containing the report, SFAS sheets and Hazards Log.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel

Siemens Transportation, Erlangen, Germany

Transport (Rail)

2001

12 months

Safety Case and Vehicle Acceptance Body (VAB) support work related to the Desiro UK project.

The Desiro UK train is the third EMU design provided to the UK railway market by Siemens (and its partners). Desiro UK follows Heathrow Express and Northern Spirit. Initially Desiro UK is being provided to Angel Train Leasing and has not been leased by them to operating companies.

VAB work involves the management and support of design activities directly related to satisfying the Railway Group Standards mandatory requirements. The work is specifically related to train electrical and control systems as well as vehicle testing requirements.

The safety work involves activities such as hazard identification, FMECA preparation and Fault Tree Modelling. These are all undertaken as part of the Desiro UK Safety Case process.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel

Siemen's, Krefeld, Germany

Transport (Rail)

2001

12 months

The remit was to provide general safety support to the non-EC&S issues for the new DESIRO train.

8303 Singapore Project

Singapore LTA

Rail

2001

< 1 month

Bid proposal to send 2 engineers to Singapore. Project not awarded (PMSC 2nd out of 6 bidders)

Secondment of PMSC Personnel

Railcare limited, Coventry

Rail

2001

3 Weeks

PMSC worked directly with Railcare collecting Data for an FMECA report.

Systems Assurance Presentation

Singapore LTA

Rail

2002

3 Day Course

PMSC developed a tailor made Systems Assurance course for the Singapore Land Transport Authority. The aims of this course were as follows:

  • Clearly describe the managerial and project issues associated with Systems Assurance
  • Extol the virtues and the benefits of Systems Assurance to the engineering fraternity
  • Provide a grounding for the non-expert in Systems Assurance principles and methods using slides and worked examples
  • Provides an overall programme and framework for Systems Assurance and some insights of why things go wrong or how to get it right first time.
  • Modules of the course covered Safety Management Principles; Safety Management Standards; Safety Management Concepts; LTA Safety Management Process and Related Topics; Overview of Systems Assurance Techniques.
  • The Safety Management Principles Module covered:
  • Basic Principles Of A Risk Based Safety
  • Management Programme
  • Origins Of Systems Assurance
  • Discussion And Review Of Best Practice
  • Systems Safety Assurance (Outline Concepts)
  • Safety Policies
  • Risk Management And Risk Management Criteria
  • The Concept Of ALARP (Legal Origin)The Safety Management Standards Module Covered:
  • Applicable Safety Management Standards
  • Walk Through EN 50126
  • Walk Through HSE 2000
  • Walk Through EN 50129 And IEC 61508
  • What The Standards Don't Say i.e. "Best Practice"
  • Life Cycle Programme Issues
  • Worked Example (Application Of Standards)The Safety Management Concepts module covered:
  • Safety Risk Management
  • Safety Integrity
  • Development Of Safety Requirements
  • Allocation Of Requirements
  • SIL Determination
  • System Realisation
  • Safety Validation
  • Brief Review Of Other Standards And Approaches
  • The LTA Safety Management Process and Related Topics module covered:
  • Safety Programme Planning
  • Requirements And Specification Management
  • Verification And Validation
  • Typical Project Flow Chart
  • The Overview of Systems Assurance Techniques module covered:
  • Safety Criteria Checklists
  • FMECA
  • HAZOP Methods
  • Hazards Analysis (Including PHA)
  • Quantified Risk Assessment (QRA)

Modules also included a variety of worked examples to exemplify the points made in the body presentation.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel

Siemens

Rail

2002

12 Months

This project involved PMSC working directly with Siemens Krefeld on the Desiro UK project. Work involved attendance of Hazard Close Out meetings; FMEA for Meeting Train Communication and review of draft FMEA report; Review of Hazard Close Out documents; Review of Brake Communication Network including Multifunctional Vehicle Bus revised FMEA report; Review of Door FMEA reports; Review of Door Fault Trees Report; Preparation work for and involvement in HAZID studies.

Secondment of PMSC Personnel

Thames Link 2000

Rail

22-Apr-02

12 Months

Working directly for Railtrack Thameslink 2000 project PMSC provided technical support by assisting Railtrack in the preparation of the Thameslink 2000 Engineering Safety case, which addresses all 33 of the major scopes of the 1 billion project. The required safety studies associated with the infrastructure changes being identified and will form the safety deliverables for the contractors. in addition the interface between Railtrack and the submissions to the internal and external approval bodies is being managed.